The Use of AIS in Navigation

AIS provides identification of targets together with the static and dynamic information Mariners should, use this information with caution noting the following important points: Collision avoidance must be carried out in strict compliance with the COLREGs. There is NO...

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Voyage Planning

Principles of Voyage Planning One of the most important procedures on a ship is that of voyage planning. A passage plan is a thorough, berth to berth guide, that identifies potential difficulties or risks on the proposed voyage. There are four stages of Voyage...

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GPS Jamming & Spoofing

In 1978, the first experimental Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite was launched and was originally intended for military use, however in the 1980’s the system was made available for civilian use. GPS is a satellite-based navigation system consisting of 27...

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