Radar equipment and set-up.
• The main components of a radar
• How a radar set measures
• How a radar set measures bearing.
• The limitations imposed by the
power, antenna size and display
size of a typical small craft radar.
• Switch on a typical small craft
radar set; adjust its brilliance,
contrast, gain, range, and tuning.
Understanding the picture:
• How antenna size and frequency
affect beam width.
• How pulse length and PRF are
varied with range.
• The factors that determine the
strength of echo returned by a
• The effect of beam width on
• The effect of pulse length on
• The effect of blind arcs, shadows
sectors, and radar horizon.
Refining the picture:
• The cause and cure for sea clutter.
• The cause and cure for rain clutter.
• The cause and cure for
• The purpose of echo stretch.
• The dangers associated with clutter
• The difference between Head Up,
Course Up, and North Up modes.
• Adjust the sea clutter and rain
clutter controls to suit prevailing
• Identify whether a radar is in Head
Up or North Up mode.
• How radar cross section is
• Types of passive reflector in
common use (octahedral, stacked
• Types of active reflector in common
use (RTE, Racon, SART).
• The limitations of passive radar
Understands Collision Avoidance:
• The principles of relative motion.
• The existence of automatic radar
• The implications of IRPCS Rule
Numbers 5, 6, 7, and 19 (look out,
safe speed, risk of collision,
• The practical limitations of small
• Assessing the risk of collision with
• Assessing the closest point of
approach of another vessel, and
determining whether it will pass
ahead or astern.
• Assessing the course and speed of
Fixing position by radar:
• The principles of a three point fix.
• Selecting landmarks for a three
• How to take and plot a position fix
using the EBl.
• Limitations of the EBL for position
• Plotting the vessel’s position on a
chart by using the VRM.
• The Indexing.
• Preparing and executing a simple
pilotage plan using clearing ranges.