Rule 19 Conduct of Vessels in Restricted Visibility, explained

The Rules applying in restricted visibility include:

Part B – Steering and Sailing Rules

• Section 3 – Conduct of Vessels in Restricted Visibility

§ Rule 19 – Conduct Of Vessels in Restricted Visibility

• Section 1 – Conduct of Vessels in any Condition of Visibility

§ Rule 4 – Application
§ Rule 5 – Look Out
§ Rule 6 – Safe Speed
§ Rule 7 – Risk of Collision
§ Rule 8 – Action to Avoid Collision
§ Rule 9 – Narrow Channels
§ Rule 10 – Traffic Separation Schemes
• Remember that if you can see the other vessel then Rule 19 does NOT apply

• Rue 19 applies in, or near an area of restricted visibility

Rule 19 Proceed at a Safe Speed

Rule 19 Conduct of vessels in restricted visibility.

(b) Every vessel shall proceed at a safe speed adapted to the prevailing circumstances and conditions of restricted visibility. A power-driven vessel shall have her engines ready for immediate manoeuvre.

In restricted visibility;

• You must proceed at a safe speed,
• Rule 6 details what a safe speed is,
• Always have your engines ready for immediate manoeuvre, so that all options to avoid collision are available.

Rule 19
(c) Every vessel shall have due regard to the prevailing circumstances and conditions of restricted visibility when complying with the Rules of Section I of this Part.
• When navigating in restricted visibility, Rule 19 is not the only rule from Part B (Steering and Sailing Rules) that applies.
• Rules 4 to 10 also apply.
Avoid Collisions and Close Quarters Situations

Order to apply Rules to

• Rule 7 – Risk of Collision
• Rule 19 (b) – Conduct of Vessels in Restricted Visibility
• Rule 8 – Action to Avoid Collision
• Rule 19 (e) – Conduct of Vessels in Restricted Visibility

Rule 7
(b) Proper use shall be made of radar equipment if fitted and operational, including long-range scanning to obtain early warning of risk of collision and radar plotting or equivalent systematic observations of detected objects.
• Make full/proper use of radar and ARPA
• Use radar range-scales correctly
§ Use shorter ranges when plotting targets closer to your vessel.
§ Use long-range scanning to give early warning of collision or close quarter situations.
• Make systematic observations of targets to asses risk of collision and build up situational awareness.

Rule 7 Risk Of Collision
(c) Assumptions shall not be made on the basis of scanty information, especially scanty radar information.
• Do not make assumptions based on scanty information

• Take time to assess every situation properly

• It requires several minutes of systematic observation to produce useful information from a radar or ARPA set.

Rule 7
(d) In determining if risk of collision exists the following considerations shall be among those taken into account.
(i) Such risk shall be deemed to exist it the compass bearing of an approaching vessel does not appreciably change.
(ii) Such risk may sometimes exist even when an appreciable bearing change is evident, particularly when approaching a very large vessel or a tow or when approaching a vessel at close range.

Determine risk of collision from a systematic plotting of targets:

• Observing the compass bearing of a target is one means of determining if risk of collision exists.
• In restricted visibility the only way to observe the compass bearing of a target is to use a compass stabilised radar.
• Risk of collision exists if the compass bearing does not appreciably change
• An electronic bearing line (EBL) fixed to own ship is a convenient way of observing changes to the compass bearing of a target.
• Even if the compass bearing does not appreciably change, risk of collision may still exist when approaching large targets or when approaching targets at close range
Determine risk of collision from a systematic plotting of targets:

• Relative motion trails on a radar provide a reliable indication of collision risk
• On an ARPA display, risk of collision with a tracked target exists if the relative vector of the target points at own ship’s position on the display screen.
• CPA and TCPA alarms can be set to provide warning of collision risk or of a close quarter situation with tracked targets.

Rule 19
(d) A vessel which detects by radar alone the presence of another vessel shall determine if a close-quarters situation is developing and/or risk of collision exists. If so, she shall take avoiding action in ample time, provided that when such action consists of an alteration of course, so far as possible the following shall be avoided:
(i) An alteration of course to port for a vessel forwards of the beam, other than for a vessel being overtaken.
(ii) An alteration of course towards a vessel abeam or abaft the beam.

Determine if;
• Risk of collision exists:
§ A close quarters situation is developing, with each vessel detected by radar.
§ If risk of collision or a close quarters situation is developing then take avoiding action.

THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS A STAND ON VESSEL IN RESTRICTED VISIBILTY
• If the target posing the risk of collision or a close quarters situation is forward of your beam:
§ Try to avoid altering course to port for that vessel, unless you are overtaking it.
• If the target posing the risk of collision or a close quarters situation is abeam or abaft of your beam:
• Try to avoid altering course towards that vessel.

Rule 8
Action to avoid a collision.
(a) Any action taken to avoid a collision shall be taken in accordance with the Rules of this Part and shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, be positive, made in ample time and with due regard to the observance of good seamanship.
• Comply with the Steering and Sailing Rules
• Take early action which results in a safe outcome
• Observe good seamanship

Rule 8
Action to avoid a collision
(b) Any alteration of course and/or speed to avoid collision shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, be large enough to be readily apparent to another vessel observing visually or by radar; a succession of small alterations of course and/or speed should be avoided.
Make Alterations Apparent
Alterations should be readily apparent to other vessels.
• Course alterations are more readily apparent than changes of speed.
• Do not make a series of small alterations of course and/or speed.

Rule 8
Action to Avoid Collision
(d) Action taken to avoid a collision with another vessel shall be such as to result in passing at a safe distance. The effectiveness of the action shall be carefully checked until the other vessel in finally past and clear.
Keep a Safe Distance
Keep a safe distance from all other vessels.
• The safe distance will depend on the circumstances if you have the sea room available then there is no reason to pass close to another vessel.
• It is important to continue monitor the effectiveness of the action taken until the other vessel is past and clear.

Rule 8
Action to avoid a collision.
(e) If necessary to avoid collision of allow more time to assess the situation, a vessel shall slacken her speed or take all way off by stopping or reversing her means of propulsion.
Alteration of Speed.
• Reduce speed to avoid a close quarters situation or collision.
• Reduce speed to allow more time to assess the situation.
• A power driven vessel should have the engine/propulsion ready for immediate manoeuvre.

Rule 8 (f)
Action to avoid a collision.
(i) A vessel which, by any of these Rules, is required not to impede the passage or safe passage of another vessel shall, when required by the circumstances of the case, take early action to allow sufficient sea room for the safe passage of the other vessel.
(ii) A vessel required not to impede the passage or safe passage of another vessel is not relieved of this obligation if approaching the other vessel so as to involve risk of collision and shall, when taking action, have full regard to the action which may be required by the Rules of this part.
(iii) A vessel, the passage of which is not to be impeded remains fully obliged to comply with the Rules of this part when the two vessels are approaching one another so as to involve risk of collision.

Vessels required not to impede the safe passage of other vessels.
• The Collision Regulations require certain vessels not to impede the safe passage of other vessels.
• In restricted visibility, both vessels are required to take action to avoid collision.

Rule 19
(e) Except where it has been determined that a risk of collision does not exist, every vessel which hears apparently forwards of her beam the fog signal of another vessel, or which cannot avoid a close-quarters situation with another vessel forwards of her beam, shall reduce her speed to the minimum at which she can be kept on her course. She shall if necessary take all her way off and in any event navigate with extreme caution until danger of collision in over.
Taking action when unable to avoid a close quarters situation.
• Reduce speed to allow more time to assess the situation
• Remember not all vessels will be detected by radar
If a fog signal is heard it might be difficult to locate the direction of the fog signal.
In order to comply with Rule 19:
• Keep an effective listening watch for fog signals.
• Have your engine ready for immediate manoeuvre.

%d bloggers like this: